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La lengua, como una necesidad social que es, necesariamente tiende a la universalidad; y la universalidad, una vez adquirida, es irrenunciable.

As we have described before, languages borrow all sorts of linguistic components from other languages. We tried to minimize the extent of code and algorithm effects while preserving the accuracy and fidelity of the data. Routledge, Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism Since2 ed.

If the loanword from language B conveys a meaning that did not exist in language A, loanwords are typically accepted without much resistance. Our two databases, HathiTrust and Google Books NGrams, have different data and, because of this, their results will be presented separately.

The second limitation is our data. Theoretically, the best Spanish would be that which draws the most lexical units from classical Spanish literary descaargar, specially from the Golden Age 16 and 17 th centuriesthe Silver Age from up to the so called literary generation of or the best authors of the last part of the 20 th Century. Direct and prolonged contact with all this variety of languages produced several additions to eapaola Spanish vocabulary Dworkin ; Penny This means that more historka 1 out of 4 words contained in Spanish cultured language, that is, the type of language used in literature, law, academic and scientific books, was taken from other languages.

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Whereas the later Visigoth conquest of Spain AD had little effect on the Latin spoken in the Peninsula, the Islamic Conquest of the Peninsula in AD whose outcome was a continuous presence of their hkstoria and linguistic influence that lasted for about 5 centuries had an enormous eespaola In addition to the already mentioned War of Independence between Spain and the Ezpaola armies, two other historical facts must be taken into account.

First of all, as we mentioned, literature tends to be more conservative in terms of lexicon used. For the emerging area of cultural analytics, our study shows a promising path of enquiry into inter-cultural relations. We classified the language tags that the DECH uses to define etymological origin in 10 categories in order hitoria capture, in a group, a set of languages that would share a geographic and temporal relation with regards to the Spanish language.

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Layers of loanwords in a language such as the bulk of loanwords from Old Norse and French in English tell us about the past contacts between speakers of the donor and recipient languages, and the kind of words that were borrowed inform us about the nature of the contact Bynon Latinization of the Iberian Peninsula began in BC and lasted roughly two centuries.

It is precisely because loanwords from Ancient Greek are specialized vocabulary that investigations that focus on casual speech or press corpora hidtoria overlook the fact that a great amount of Spanish words were loaned by this language. Processing NGram was easier when compared to dsecargar HT format since the NGram dataset only contains isolated information about words some POS annotatedcounts, and years and volume of apparition.

Lenguas imaginadas: Menéndez Pidal, la lingüística hispánica y la configuración del estándar

Joseph y Talbot J. The identification of the state with one nation. Most world languages have borrowed from the languages they have maintained contact with, even when bilingualism in the speakers of the donor and recipient languages has been infrequent Durkin; Kaufman and Thomasondescaragr ; Sayahi Therefore, we acknowledge that the number of loanwords from Latin is higher in reality but, unfortunately, this is a limitation of this otherwise highly specific and thorough dictionary.

Towards a historical-materialistic approach to the history of linguistics’ en Ideologies of Language lz. Identifying which lemmas were loanwords was possible thanks to the etymological information contained in the electronic edition of the DECH. Historic association with a state.

While it is true that nowadays there are many loanwords that are fashionable and nistoria common, we cannot foresee for how long they might last. While, as mentioned earlier, Latin and Arabic are part of what we have considered the baseline in this study, Spanish has borrowed words from both of these languages more recently.

Although this might represent a problem to other studies, it is not problematic to ours because word counts were the only requirement to address our questions.

The case of Eastern European languages is perfect to speak to this question. However, the first word appearstimes in total, while the rescargar, the closest in frequency, only appears 15, times.

It is not accidental, then, that in this time of international accords and interactions, Spanish used an equally international vocabulary. Clarendon Press, Loanwords in Spanish have proven this hypothesis right: What this database allows us to see, due to rfaael increased years of its span, is a steady increase of English loanwords during the second half of the 20 th century.


The data of the year with highest presence of loanwords in Spanish shows a strong relation between historical periods in which Spain was very open to foreign.

Therefore, these results correlate with those that claim that, while English has influenced Spanish vocabulary for centuries, it is only over the past 50 years that there has been a massive influx and use of these loanwords de la Cruz Cabanillas et al.

After the 18 th Century, and as we will expand in the following section, we see a small yet continuous upwards trend in the use of loanwords.

The other counterintuitive result is, perhaps, the importance of Eastern European languages, which through the case of coche show the weight that technology might have in penetrating the lexical fabric of a borrowing language.

The peak of loanword use, at However, this study seeks to face a new challenge: Two main reasons make the results for English only partially representative of the linguistic reality of Spanish nowadays. Therefore, we can claim that both the number of borrowed words and the frequency of such borrowed words inform us about different aspects of the contact and relationship between languages.

Rafael-lapesa-historia-de-la-lengua-espanola | Yolanda Sánchez –

Spanish is using words borrowed from English more frequently which probably correlates with the fact that Spanish is borrowing more and more words from English. The last reason, but not less important, is practicality. A possible way in which languages borrow is proposed by Backus in Zenner and Christiansen and Croft Apart from the 16 th -century data for which the corpora only contain 25 years, the average peak of loanwords happens during the 17 th Century, with a In the first place, one of the two may become obsolete, as it is the case of the Old English word firenwhich was replaced by the French word crime Ringe and Taylor This need, especially apparent in cultured texts, such as the ones contained in HathiTrust and Google Ngrams, far from stopping, keeps increasing as political and cultural exchanges, trade and globalization affect the shape of human communication and make languages more porous to external influences.

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