Scientific Name, Epinotia aporema [TAX]. Lineage, cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Protostomia;. Epinotia aporema granulovirus (EpapGV) is a fast killing betabaculovirus that infects the bean shoot borer (E. aporema) and is a promising. A granulovirus (GV) isolated from Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)—a major soybean pest—was studied in terms of its main.

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Soybean production in southern South America has increased dramatically. Epknotia calling and mating was observed during the scotophase, from the first to the seventh night after adult emergence. Prior to mating, a sequence of events was observed in which the quiescent male responded to the calling female aporsma approaching her while fanning his wings in the upright position, male and female then made contact with their antennae, and immediately turned to engage in mating Fig 4.

Five specimens were collected in Brownsville, Texas in and possibly others in Services on Demand Journal. Such variation may respond to various predictable ecological conditions, to which different species are adapted.

Our data will be used to optimize epinotla collection of female sex pheromones for chemical characterization in order to develop a monitoring tool for this pest. Male genitalia are characterized by a short triangular uncuslarge triangular sociiand a parallel-sided cucullus. Females adopted a characteristic calling posture, extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen.

Rev Fac Agron Detection and kinetic analysis of Epinotia aporema granulovirus in its lepidopteran host by real-time PCR. An immunochemical method for quantitation of Epinotia aporema granulovirus EpapGV. Epinotia aporema Walsingham is a Neotropical pest of legumes in southern South America. N Z Plant Protect In soybean, the larvae feed on vegetative plant parts affecting the normal growth of the plant. Most of the couples mated once throughout the experiment, between the third and sixth night and during the middle of the dark phase.


In Uruguay, for example, the cultivated area has expanded fold during the periodcausing a fold increase in the use of insecticides such as endosulphan and chlorpyrifos Ferrari No courtship behaviour was observed when the males reached the mesh that separated the olfactometer from the tube holding the calling female. Pupation occurs in the soil or in rolled leaves.

Moths show variation with respect to the frequency of mating and the onset of sexual activity after adult emergence. Identical glass tubes were attached to each of the test arms, one holding a single virgin female in calling posture days old and the other empty to serve as control arms were alternated between tests.

Epstein Interactive Keys developed in Lucid 3.

This underlines the importance of an adequate monitoring system for this species, currently performed by direct observation of the cryptic larvae. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy AppremaTerms of Epinitiaand Dataset License. Last updated August Crocidosema aporema adults were obtained from two laboratory populations that were kept in similar conditions in our laboratories in Brazil and Uruguay.

Most females started calling during the second scotophase, and all females called from the third, between the fifth and seventh hours after the onset of the scotophase. Sex Pheromone of the Bud Borer Epinotia aporema: Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins against bean shoot borer Epinotia aporema Wals. Larval Morphology For information on the larva of Crocidosema aporemaplease consult aprema fact sheet and keys on LepIntercept – An identification resource for intercepted Lepidoptera larvae.

The behaviour aprema each male was observed continuously during 20 min, recording the first arm chosen and the number of entrances in both arms.

Humidified and pre-cleaned activated charcoal air was passed through the olfactometer at a total flow of 2. Females were observed every 15 min for their calling behavior under a red light that was lit only during the observations.


Interestingly, our data suggest that older females tend to wpinotia calling earlier in the scotophase, thereby increasing the calling period. Entomophthorales for the biocontrol of Epinotia aporema Wals. Biology Crocidosema aporema completes generations per year, with at least two generations occuring on soybean.

Crocidosema aporema is distributed throughout Central and South America. Genome of Epinotia aporema granulovirus EpapGVa polyorganotropic fast killing betabaculovirus with a novel thymidylate kinase gene.

Adult Recognition

Tortricids of Agricultural Importance by Todd M. Our results show that even in the constant aporemma of a male during several nights, mated females did not tend to re-mate, which differs from other epinotla females that mate repeatedly Knight Courtship and mating were observed under red light, throughout the hour scotophase, during seven consecutive nights.

It may be speculated that behaviors such as the antennal contact prior to both adults turning and engaging in mating may have communication value, such as species recognition or female receptivity cues.

Our results describe rpinotia the fi rst time the temporal pattern associated to the reproductive behaviour of C. Rev Soc Entomol Argent Bol Univ Repub Fac Agron Both males and females increase their flight activity upon the onset of the scotophase, and quickly return to quiescence at the beginning of the photophase.

Multiplex PCR and quality control of Epinotia aporema granulovirus production.

No pulsation of the gland or obvious wing fluttering was observed. J Chem Ecol Crocidosema aporema originated in Costa Rica, and is now widely distributed throughout Sporema America.

Response of males in olfactometer. Washington, National Academy Press, p. Adults can be present year-round and are most common between April and November in South America. Chemical communication, sex pheromone, calling periodicity, Y-olfactometer test.

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