He tenido en cuenta esta necesidad en varias ocasiones, así también con respecto a las Glosas Emilianenses (Hamburg, , versión española Sevilla, ). The Glosas Emilianenses are several different kinds of glosses added to selected parts of a 10th-century manuscript from the region of La Rioja in Northern. Record Number: of Title: Glosas Emilianenses. Description: The website for the ‘Glosas Emilianenses’ offers a wide selection of scholarly works.

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Furthermore, the complexities may suggest that the glossator most probably was the same person as the intended scribe; he intended to use these indications himself when copying the texts.

Even so, the glosses turn the plural subject into an object of a Latin plural verb that does not allow objects. Only two of the glosses in Aemilianensis 60 of a total of about one thousand are actually emilianensez Basque.

The two complements, ad mare mortuum and a mare majore, which both depend on the one verb already present in the base text, would not represent tlosas difficulty. A similar example is found on f27r:.

Castilla nace en el sur de Cantabria, norte de Burgos y oeste de La Rioja. Scholars do not agree as to the purpose of these glosses. The genitive forms show number and gender cuius, corum, quarum and gloss genitives in the base text. Such glossing only makes sense if the purpose were to improve stylistically the text, not if the purpose were to teach Latin. This tendency to stylistically improve the text manifests itself in various ways; two of them are treated in the following. He wrote about a thousand years ago in three languages:.

Suyos son aquellos versos que dicen: This conditionality entails that the user of these glosses needed time to analyse them and put them to use, which in turn excludes their being used directly, for instance as aids when reading aloud.

On the other hand, the stylistic modifications, by some scholars seen as explanatory, seem to be prompted by other mechanisms than understanding. Some changes reflect diachronic development in the language. The first type, as the name reveals, consists of synonyms to a word in the base text.


V, [u] [ ]. If we were to identify the student who would benefit from these glosses, we would first need to explain why he would need the pronoun nos, and second why he would not be confused by this glossing. This glossing indicates in the first case that signa may be used with singular verbs, and in the second that it should not be used with plural verbs; these indications entail that signa is singular.

Glosas Emilianenses

The original structure of this sentence is plural subject, multa signa, plural intransitive verb, apparebunt, and circumstantial complement, jn caelo: Again, this glossing would be confusing for the students. It may also have been an impersonal emiljanenses.

However, I have shown that the complexity of the glosses suggest that the performance would not be done directly using the glossed manuscript. My claim is that a didactic setting does not encourage this type of changes. There is no apparent reason why signa in one case should be tagged nominative and in another emilinenses.

The Glosas Emilianenses: emendation marks – Persée

However, it has been suggested that some of the Romance glosses reflect the influence of the Basque language, the implication being that their author was a fluent Basque-speaker. For users of the glossed texts to make sense of quite a few of the grammatical glosses, they would first need to use the sequential glosses. These examples demonstrate that sometimes the indications provided by the glosses are of such a complexity that they would render a usage in real time very difficult.

If indeed this is the case, it has important implications on the analysis of the untraditionally written Romance glosses in the manuscript as well emillianenses the relationship between spoken and written Latin in the 11th century Spain.

En vasco aparecen dos glosas: Such changes include making subjects explicit by inserting them, adding full nouns where the base text merely has pronouns, adding pronouns where the verb appears alone, simplifying sentence structures, adding information to make lgosas text more available. Another interesting observation about 3 is that in Classical Latin, the noun signa was plural of signum, and so emilanenses a verb in the plural.

The longest gloss appears on page 72 of the manuscripts. In other words, the glosses were emendation marks intended to modify the language of the base text.


A similar thing happens with the gloss o, usually believed to mark the vocative case. See Hagemann for elaboration of these issues.

I show that there gloss great many examples that do not fall into such a category; rather, some glosses appear to be stylistic changes to the text. The lexical glosses may be divided into two main subtypes; synonymous and supplementary.

It is not, however, likely that it was originally intended as an object, given its passive morphology. Two other glosses, ego lebantai and ke pugnam, above respectively suscitabi and.

Example 7 illustrates this phenomenon: The regularity of these changes and their synchronicity with later developments in the language unambiguously indicate that they are connected emmilianenses diachronic developments in the word order. The grammatical glosses may additionally have functioned orthographically to indicate in which case words were to be written, thereby also changing some syntactic functions in the texts.

V, [y] [ ]. The sequential glosses generally mark the word order in the manuscript. According to the scholars who believe these glosses are didactic, these glosses are partly grammatical indicators ke and corum and partly Romance translations emilianensds and pugna.

They are most often placed in between the lines of the base text, and are clearly attempts at writing correct Latin, displaying for instance synthetic forms. Compare with example Aparte de estas lenguas que tienen personalidad propia, las hablas dialectales del castellano se pueden clasificar en dos grupos: The most common changes are moving the verb to initial position on sentence level VSO is obtained in practically all the main declarative sentencesand moving the determinative before its noun on phrase level.

This supposed Latin teacher had no problem overlooking that the verb was in the passive, and that canonical passives cannot allow direct objects, but he insisted on agreement between subject and verb. This page was last edited on 6 Januaryat

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